Why do I need to reference?
You need to reference when you are:
See if you can work out whether you would need to reference in these common scenarios.
How do I reference?
The basic components of referencing are:
In text citations: This is the way of indicating in your text that you are referring to someone else’s work. The way you do this varies depending on the style you are using. It may be the author’s name and the date in brackets, for example (Jones, 2012), or a number like this 1 or like this , linking to a footnote at the bottom of the page.
Bibliography: This is a list at the end of a piece of work which list all the sources you used for your work and can include background reading that may not have been directly referred to in the text.
Reference List: This is slightly different from a bibliography in that it only includes references that have been directly cited in the main text of the work. Check your departmental guidelines if unsure whether to use a reference list or a bibliography.
Name and Date systems
In Name / Date systems the reference is inserted in the text within brackets e.g. (Smith 2018) or (Smith 2018, p.32). These references will correspond with an alphabetical bibliography placed at the end of the piece of work. Precise formatting will vary according to the style guide you choose to follow.
Harvard Referencing System
There is no standard Harvard method so a number of variations have evolved. For a simple and straightforward guide we recommend:
There is also an online version: Cite Them Right
APA (American Psychological Association)
This is the style developed by the American Psychological Association for use in their publications and is widely used throughout Psychology. We have printed copies of the full manual in the library:
MLA (Modern Language Association)
The main style guide to refer to is:
In numeric systems the reference is inserted as a number in the text  or text ¹
1. Reference details are either at the end of the text (endnote) or at the foot of the page (footnote)
Numbers are linked to full references in footnotes or endnotes placed at the bottom of the page or the end of the piece of work. These will also link to a bibliography or reference list. Precise formatting will vary according to the style guide you follow.
Chicago (Notes and Bibliography version)
We have printed copies available in the library:
There is a useful, basic online version of the Chicago style.
The printed MHRA guide is available in the library:
IEEE is used by the Computing department at Goldsmiths. Consult the IEEE's referencing guidelines for how to reference.
Most style guides will include details about how to reference visual resources. Cite Them Right has some useful information on this.
You may also want to include copies of images in your essay or dissertation. It is good practice to include a caption with these. These can include references to the source where you found the image. The following is a suggested style guide for captions using Chicago.
The BUFVC has created a useful guide to help with referencing audiovisual resources.